Biomass

“Biomass” is organic matter used as fuel. The fuel can be either a liquid or solid, such as chipped wood, energy crops like switchgrass, forest or agricultural residue or waste, manufacturing waste, (i.e., wood shavings from a furniture factory or a paper mill), wood pellets, sewage sludge, or construction and demolition waste. Pennsylvanians use biomass primarily to generate heat, either on the smaller residential scale or on the institutional scale. Biomass is primarily fired in boilers, similar to coal, natural gas or fuel oil. Liquid biomass fuels occur most often as ethanol and are typically used to supplement gasoline for vehicles.

Residential scale units, which includes woodstoves as well as outdoor wood-fired boilers (OWBs), typically burn wood in uncontrolled ways that produce relatively large quantities of dangerous air pollution. The impact from these pollutants is felt more dramatically by those nearest to the OWBs because these units are often older, are of a less efficient design, and are operated inefficiently. Efficiency is critical because a failure to completely burn biomass creates excess air pollution. More specifically, incomplete burning creates highly dangerous forms of particulate matter measuring 2.5 microns in size or less. This smaller particulate matter penetrates deep into the lungs. Some highly efficient designs exist but are not widely used in Pennsylvania.
 
Institutional scale units, also referred to as institutional, commercial, and industrial boilers (ICIs), typically have more pollution controls than their residential counterparts and are often operated by trained specialists. While these units emit fewer harmful criteria pollutants relative to their OWB counterparts, they still emit these pollutants in greater numbers. Further, the particles they emit are typically products of higher burning temperatures and higher oxygen conditions, meaning that the particles may not be as dangerous as those produced by OWBs. Nonetheless, their heavy adoption in Pennsylvania, at the rate of several new ICI boilers a month, means that hundreds of tons a year in air pollutants are being emitted near factories, schools, and hospitals.
 
The Council provides a critical oversight role for this rapidly expanding energy sector. At every turn, the Council seeks to ensure the most protective standards are adhered to and the best pollution control technology is applied in the context of biomass burning.
 

On January 21, 2014 Clean Air Council attended a Regulation Subcommittee meeting of Allegheny County Air Pollution Control Advisory Committee to present a “No Burn” Model proposal to the committee to consider for revision of its open burning regulations. The suggestion was supported by the American Lung Association in a letter to the committee.  Also attending the meeting in support of the model regulation was the Executive Director of Women for a Healthy Environment.

Clean Air Council has developed a new website providing information on the environmental impact of wood burning, including open burning, outdoor wood-fired boilers, and wood-burning stoves. 

From 9am - 7 pm on February 26, 2014, U.S. EPA will hold a public hearing on Proposed New Source Performance Standards for Residential Wood Heaters at the EPA New England Regional Office, 5 Post Office Square - Suite 100, Leighton Hall, Boston, MA.  

The Council submitted comments on the Fayette Thermal facility's authorization to burn biomass in its boilers today. Fayette Thermal's facility includes over 40 million btu of thermal generating capacity in Luzerne Township, Fayette County, Pennsylvania. These comments advocate for stronger leak detection and reporting requirements. To view the Council's comments in full, please see the attached document.

On February 18, 2013, the Clean Air Council submitted comments on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s proposed operating permit renewal for Noram Seating Inc.’s wood chair manufacturing facility, located in the Union City Borough, Erie County.  The facility consists of one wood-fired boiler.  The Council noted that the facility has been operating with an expired permit for forty-nine (49) days, yet the Department

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